[106] The Government of India challenged this decision before the Supreme Court, which referred the case to a Constitution Bench.[107]. . [50][51][52], The foiled bid of India recently to enter the Nuclear Suppliers Group, echoed his policy of non-proliferation to be linked to universal disarmament, which the World Nuclear Association refuses to recognise; non-proliferation being seen by India as essentially a weapon of the arms control regime, of the big nuclear powers as United States, Russia, United Kingdom, France, and China. [58] Gandhi later said about the incident: When I was inspecting the guard of honour and as I walked past one person, I saw through the corner of my eye some movement. The guard was then dragged off by his security personnel. His parents were Feroze and Indira Gandhi. Singh scaled the peak of power as the home minister in Rajiv Gandhi ’s government. [28], After his swearing-in as Prime Minister, Gandhi appointed his fourteen-member cabinet. [58][59] The guard said his intention was to kill Gandhi because of "the damage he had caused" to Sri Lanka. Mizo National Front demanded independence for Mizoram. A. Ghani Khan Choudhury. . Singh who was initially appointed as the Finance Minister, was given the Defence Ministry in 1987. [55], The Sri Lankan Civil War broke out with the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE), which was demanding an independent Tamil state in Sri Lanka. V.P.Singh had received a telegram from the Indian ambassador in Germany, stating that an Indian agents had received commissions in the HDW submarine deal. [47], On Thursday, 9 June 1988, at the fifteenth special session of the United Nations General Assembly, held at Headquarters, New York, Gandhi made vocal his views on a world free of nuclear weapons, to be realised through an, 'Action Plan for Ushering in a Nuclear-Weapon Free and Non-Violent World Order.'[48][49]. [44] According to Laskar, Rajiv Gandhi's diplomacy was "properly calibrated" so as to be "conciliatory and accommodating when required" and "assertive when the occasion demanded." The following year he won his brother's Parliamentary seat of Amethi and became a member of the Lok Sabha—the lower house of India's Parliament. [32], In 1985, the Supreme Court of India ruled in favour of Muslim divorcee Shah Bano, declaring that her husband should give her alimony. [59], Soon after assuming office, Gandhi released the leaders of the Akali Dal who had been imprisoned since 1984's Operation Blue Star during Indira Gandhi's prime ministership. The cameraman, named Haribabu, died in the blast but the camera remained intact. [32], In 1985, the Supreme Court of India ruled in favour of Muslim divorcee Shah Bano, declaring that her husband should give her alimony. [9] In 1968, after three years of courtship, he married Edvige Antonia Albina Màino, who changed her name to Sonia Gandhi and made India her home. Rajiv was also educated at the Ecole D'Humanité, an international boarding school in Switzerland. This led to differences and V.P.Singh resigned from the cabinet. [71], Opposition parties Lok Dal, Indian National Congress (Socialist) and Jan Morcha united under Singh to form the Janata Dal. [61], Gandhi's prime-ministership marked an increase of insurgency in northeast India. [65] Gandhi's government also allowed the import of fully assembled motherboards, which led to the price of computers being reduced. He took office after the 1984 assassination of his mother, Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, to become the youngest Indian Prime Minister at the age of 40. [clarification needed][79], Rajiv Gandhi's last public meeting was on 21 May 1991, at Sriperumbudur, a village approximately 40 km (25 mi) from Madras (present-day Chennai), where he was assassinated while campaigning for the Sriperumbudur Lok Sabha Congress candidate. Rajiv Gandhi was a Prime Minister who strove to handhold India into the 21 st century. [36] Lawyer and former Law Minister of India, Ram Jethmalani, called the Act "retrogressive obscurantism for short-term minority populism". This was in contrast to Section 125 of the Code. This is a national endeavour. [14] During this time, he was still an employee of Air India. [30], Gandhi's first action as Prime Minister was passing the anti-defection law in January 1985. Rajiv Gandhi's period in office was mired in controversies; perhaps the greatest crises were the Bhopal disaster, Bofors scandal and Mohd. [18] In December the same year, he was put in charge of the Indian Youth Congress. The judgement further cites the death of Thileepan in a hunger strike and the suicide by 12 LTTE cadres in a vessel in Oct 1987. A. Ghani Khan Choudhury. Gandhi officially became the President of the Congress party, which won a landslide victory with the largest majority in history of the Indian Parliament, giving Gandhi absolute control of government. He also criticised Gandhi for his reluctance to bring the army from Meerut to handle the mob. Vij drew criticism from Congress leader Kuldeep Sharma, who said it was an "insult to their national leaders". [24], Soon after assuming office, Gandhi asked President Singh to dissolve Parliament and hold fresh elections, as the Lok Sabha had completed its five-year term. [60], In May 1988, Gandhi launched the Operation Black Thunder to clear the Golden Temple in Amritsar of arms and gunmen. [2], Rajiv Gandhi was born in Bombay on 20 August 1944 to Indira and Feroze Gandhi. B. [46] In the 1988 Maldives coup d'état, the Maldives president Maumoon Abdul Gayoom asked for help from Gandhi. He returned to India in 1966 and became a professional pilot for the state-owned Indian Airlines. [58][59] The guard said his intention was to kill Gandhi because of "the damage he had caused" to Sri Lanka. Nalini later gave birth to a girl, Harithra, in prison. Rajiv along with his brother Sanjay Gandhi went to Shiv Niketan school. He also held a closed-door meeting with senior Akali Dal leaders to find a solution to the Punjab problem. In 1986, he announced a National Policy on Education to modernise and expand higher education programs across India. According to this law, an elected Member of Parliament or legislative assembly could not join an opposition party until the next election. [citation needed] From the Third Indira Gandhi ministry, he removed two powerful figures; Finance Minister Pranab Mukherjee and Railway Minister A. He said he would monitor their performance and would "fire ministers who do not come to the mark". According to news website Oneindia, "About 20 years ago telephones were considered to be a thing for the use of the rich, but credit goes to Rajiv Gandhi for taking them to the rural masses". [29] During his tenure as Prime Minister, Gandhi frequently shuffled his cabinet ministers, drawing criticism from the magazine India Today, which called it a "wheel of confusion". [83] Gandhi's mutilated body was airlifted to the All India Institute of Medical Sciences in New Delhi for post-mortem, reconstruction and embalming.[84]. Gandhi reciprocated, in December 1988, by visiting Islamabad and meeting the new Prime Minister of Pakistan, Benazir Bhutto, to reaffirm the 1972 Shimla agreement. Rajiv Ratna Gandhi was an Indian politician who served as the 6th Prime Minister of India from 1984 to 1989. [20] Congress leader Mani Shankar Aiyar wrote, "Did it constitute an incitement to mass murder?" [68], In his book, Unknown Facets of Rajiv Gandhi, Jyoti Basu and Indrajit Gupta, released in November 2013, former CBI director Dr. A P Mukherjee wrote that Gandhi wanted commission paid by defence suppliers to be used exclusively for meeting running expenses of the Congress party. Upon discovering the scandal, Singh was dismissed from office and later resigned his Congress membership. Shourie, Arun (1992). On 23 April 1985, a 62-year old Muslim woman Shah Bano won the right to alimony in the Supreme Court. He lifted the ban on All India Sikh Students Federation and filed an inquiry into the 1984 Anti-Sikh Riots. [43], According to Rejaul Karim Laskar, a scholar of Indian foreign policy and an ideologue of Congress party, Rajiv Gandhi's vision for a new world order was premised on India's place in its front rank. [29] During his tenure as Prime Minister, Gandhi frequently shuffled his cabinet ministers, drawing criticism from the magazine India Today, which called it a "wheel of confusion". Arrested on 14 June 1991, she and 25 others were sentenced to death by a special court on 28 January 1998. Gandhi attended college in the United Kingdom. [57], Chanderasekar withdrew the IPKF in 1989.[55]. According to the accord, foreigners who came to the state between 1951 and 1961 were given full citizenship but those who arrived there between 1961 and 1971 did not get right to vote for the next ten years. Gandhi remained Congress President until the elections in 1991. LTTE spokesman Anton Balasingham told the Indian television channel NDTV the killing was a "great tragedy, a monumental historical tragedy which we deeply regret". A considerable portion of funds obtained from this channel were used to support his party. In December 1991, Amal Datta raised the issue in the Indian Parliament; the Speaker of the Lok Sabha, Shivraj Patil, expunged Rajiv Gandhi's name from the proceedings. [36] Lawyer and former Law Minister of India, Ram Jethmalani, called the Act "retrogressive obscurantism for short-term minority populism". [57] Gandhi said: The Government of India believe that, despite some problems and delays, many of which were foreseen but unavoidable in the resolution of an issue of this magnitude and complexity, this Agreement represents the only way of safeguarding legitimate Tamil interests and ensuring a durable peace in Sri Lanka. He took office after the 1984 assassination of his mother, Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, to become the youngest Indian Prime Minister at the age of 40. In 1972, the couple had a daughter, Priyanka Gandhi, who married Robert Vadra. Transferred to the Defence Ministry, Singh uncovered what became known as the Bofors scandal, which involved millions of US dollars and concerned alleged payoffs by the Swedish arms company Bofors through Italian businessman and Gandhi family associate Ottavio Quattrocchi, in return for Indian contracts. [74][75] Several leaders of opposition parties in India raised the issue, citing the Schweizer Illustrierte article. Former Home Minister PV Narasimha Rao was put in charge of defence. [58] Gandhi later said about the incident: When I was inspecting the guard of honour and as I walked past one person, I saw through the corner of my eye some movement. He went to Delhi and became a member of the Flying Club, where he was trained as a pilot. Bofors scandal, HDW scandal and 1989 elections defeat, 'GANDHI, Rajiv', Who Was Who, A & C Black, an imprint of Bloomsbury Publishing plc, 1920–2016; online edn, Oxford University Press, 2014; online edn, April 2014, PM Rajeev Gandhi at the Fifteenth special session of, Speech by Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi of India at the Joint Session of the Japanese Upper and Lower Houses, G.O.Ms.No.406, Home Department, dated 24 April 2000, CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, President of the Indian National Congress, The Muslim Women (Protection of Rights on Divorce) Act 1986, Indian intervention in the Sri Lankan Civil War, Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, "Rahul first in three generations with a world university degree", "World | South Asia | Leaders 'incited' anti-Sikh riots", "1984: Rajiv Gandhi wins landslide election victory", "Rajiv Gandhi takes oath as India's prime minister", "Shri Vishwanath Pratap Singh : Biography", "Provisions of Anti-Defection Law in India", "Rajiv Gandhi aimed at value based education in rural India through JNVs", "Unequal effects of Liberalisation – Dismantling the license raj in India", "Rajiv Gandhi's Diplomacy: Historic Significance and Contemporary Relevance", "Modi to the land where India staged 'Operation Wild Flowers are Blooming, Documents related to Japan - South Asia Relations, India’s NSG bid foiled – China stands tall, Switzerland ‘backstabs’, "No regrets for attack on Rajiv, says Lankan guard", "Sri Lankan in Honour Guard Attacks Gandhi", "Telecom revolution driving development; credit to Rajiv", "Economic Milestone: Ushering in Telecom Reforms (1985)", "Walk the talk - an interview with V.P.Singh", Rajiv Gandhi told me to use arms deal payoffs for party funds: Ex-CBI chief, "Rajiv Gandhi wanted Bofors money to run Congress: Ex-CBI chief", "Bofors scandal more of a media trial: Pranab Mukherjee", "Janata Parivar: Can 'socialist' Mulayam and co stop the Modi wave? [60], In May 1988, Gandhi launched the Operation Black Thunder to clear the Golden Temple in Amritsar of arms and gunmen. he could not conceal his feeling that Rajiv Gandhi would be invincible for the opposition. We shall not shrink our obligations and commitments. [92] Rajiv's widow, Sonia Gandhi, intervened and asked for clemency for Nalini on the grounds of the latter being a mother. At 10:10 pm, a woman later identified as Thenmozhi Rajaratnam - a member of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam approached Gandhi in public and greeted him. The report of the Jain Commission created controversy when it accused the Tamil Nadu chief minister Karunanidhi of a role in the assassination, leading to Congress withdrawing its support for the I. K. Gujral government and fresh elections in 1998. [1] That December, Congress party won the largest Lok Sabha majority to date, 411 seats out of 542. Rajiv Gandhi reiterated his party’s commitment to secularism in his speech attended by just 100 persons, an indication of which way the wind was blowing. [85] He was cremated at Veer Bhumi, on the banks of the river Yamuna near the shrines of his mother Indira Gandhi, brother Sanjay Gandhi, and grandfather Jawaharlal Nehru. Gandhi reciprocated, in December 1988, by visiting Islamabad and meeting the new Prime Minister of Pakistan, Benazir Bhutto, to reaffirm the 1972 Shimla agreement. [19], On 31 October 1984, the Prime Minister, Rajiv Gandhi's mother Indira Gandhi, was assassinated by her Sikh bodyguards, which led to violent riots against Sikhs. . These lethal, inexorable laws: Rajiv, his men and his regime. New knowledge is being generated in the life sciences. . [53][54], In February 1987, the Pakistani President Zia-ul-Haq visited Delhi, where he met Gandhi to discuss "routine military exercises of the Indian army" on the borders of Rajasthan and Punjab. [20] At a Boat Club rally 19 days after the assassination, Gandhi said, "Some riots took place in the country following the murder of Indiraji. Despite Akali opposition, in January 1985, Gandhi signed the Rajiv-Longowal Accord with Akali leader HS Longowal. He told Rajiv Gandhi about this and instituted an enquiry. After two years, the CBI told the Court Russia would not entertain such queries without a registered FIR. Among them, the cleric Chandraswami was suspected of involvement, including financing the assassination. [5] From 1962 to 1965 he studied engineering at Trinity College, Cambridge, but did not obtain a degree. A week later, the party officially announced his candidacy for the constituency. [69] Mukherjee said Gandhi explained his position in a meeting between the two at the Prime Minister's residence on 19 June 1989. [41] His efforts created MTNL in 1986, and his public call offices—better known as PCOs—helped develop the telephone network in rural areas. [68], In his book, Unknown Facets of Rajiv Gandhi, Jyoti Basu and Indrajit Gupta, released in November 2013, former CBI director Dr. A P Mukherjee wrote that Gandhi wanted commission paid by defence suppliers to be used exclusively for meeting running expenses of the Congress party. [108][109] A memorial called Veer Bhumi was constructed at the place of Gandhi's cremation in Delhi. LTTE spokesman Anton Balasingham told the Indian television channel NDTV the killing was a "great tragedy, a monumental historical tragedy which we deeply regret". The following year he won his brother's Parliamentary seat of Amethi and became a member of the Lok Sabha—the lower house of India's Parliament. • Following year, he contested from his late brother's constituency, Amethi, and tasted the victory. I ducked down a little bit in a reflex action. [65] Pitroda also said their plan to expand India's telephone network succeeded because of Gandhi's political support. None has shown a better way of meeting the legitimate aspirations of the Tamils in Sri Lanka, restoring peace in that country and of meeting our own security concern in the region. Despite Akali opposition, in January 1985, Gandhi signed the Rajiv-Longowal Accord with Akali leader HS Longowal. He received his primary education from the Shiv Niketan School in New Delhi, the Welham Boys’ School in Dehradun, and the Doon School, Dehradun. According to this law, an elected Member of Parliament or legislative assembly could not join an opposition party until the next election. [39] He did so by providing incentives to make private production profitable. [108][109] A memorial called Veer Bhumi was constructed at the place of Gandhi's cremation in Delhi. She argued that even life convicts were released after 14 years. [37], In November 1991, Schweizer Illustrierte magazine published an article on black money held in secret accounts by Imelda Marcos and 14 other rulers of Third World countries. In December 1991, Amal Datta raised the issue in the Indian Parliament; the Speaker of the Lok Sabha, Shivraj Patil, expunged Rajiv Gandhi's name from the proceedings. [11] As per Agarwal, in the week following Sanjay's death, Shankaracharya Swami Shri Swaroopanand, a saint from Badrinath, visited the family's house to offer his condolences. He signed the Assam Accord on 15 August 1985. The Act diluted the Supreme Court judgment and allowed maintenance payments to divorced women only during the period of Iddah, or until 90 days after the divorce, according to the provisions of Islamic law. His zodiac sign is Leo. He also held a closed-door meeting with senior Akali Dal leaders to find a solution to the Punjab problem. Both the Hindu right and liberals blame Rajiv Gandhi for the Shah Bano flip-flop, accusing him of indulging in minority appeasement. Some Indian Muslims treated it as an encroachment upon Muslim Personal Law and protested against it. The report of the Jain Commission created controversy when it accused the Tamil Nadu chief minister Karunanidhi of a role in the assassination, leading to Congress withdrawing its support for the I. K. Gujral government and fresh elections in 1998. Delhi: South Asia Books. [66] According to some commentators, the seed for the information technology (IT) revolution was also planted during Rajiv Gandhi's time. his winsome smile, charm and decency were his valuable personal assets. At that time, Rajiv Gandhi was in London as part of his foreign tour. 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