The settlers who refused to accept government compensation packages and voluntarily vacate their homes prior to the 15 August 2005 deadline were evicted by Israeli security forces over a period of several days. On the night of December 25, two rockets were launched from Gaza. Two months prior to the withdrawal, half of the 21 settlements' greenhouses, spread over 1,000 acres, had been dismantled by their owners, leaving the remainder on 500 acres, placing its business viability on a weak footing. You know, the term `peace process' is a bundle of concepts and commitments. ], The Disengagement Plan was also criticized by both Israelis and other observers from the opposite viewpoint as an attempt to make permanent the different settlements of the West Bank, while the Gaza strip was rendered to the Palestinian National Authority as an economically uninteresting territory with a Muslim population of nearly 1.4 million, seen as a "threat" to the Jewish identity of the Israeli democratic state. "[23][24] At the same time, Shimon Peres, then Vice Prime Minister, stated in an interview that: “We are disengaging from Gaza because of demography”. when top Sharon aide Dov Weisglass was quoted in an interview with Israeli newspaper Haaretz on October 6, 2004, as saying that the disengagement would prevent a Palestinian state for years to come (see above). The last soldier left the strip, and the Kissufim gate was closed on the early morning of September 12. [1] It was implemented in August 2005 and completed in September 2005. On June 6, 2004, Sharon's government approved an amended disengagement plan, but with the reservation that the dismantling of each settlement should be voted separately. As a result of the passing of the plan (in principle), two National Religious Party (NRP) ministers, Effi Eitam and Yitzhak Levi, resigned, leaving the government with a minority in the Knesset. In 2007, a further $125 million was added to the compensation budget. There must also be meaningful linkages between the West Bank and Gaza. On February 16, 2005, the Knesset finalized and approved the plan. Israel described the Gaza commander, Baha Abu al-Ata, as a “ticking bomb” who was “responsible for most of the Palestinian Islamic Jihad’s activity in the Gaza Strip.” Following the withdrawal, Hamas was elected as the Palestinian government which started the chain reaction leading to Operation "Summer Rains" later within that year. At that time, Sharon referred to Gaza communities such as Netzarim as "no different than Tel Aviv", and said that they are of such strategic value that "the fate of Netzarim is the fate of Tel Aviv.". ", The Israeli media systematically overstated "the threat posed by those opposed to disengagement and emphasiz[ed] extreme scenarios", according to the Israeli media monitoring NGO Keshev ("Awareness"). ', 'Watch Hillary Clinton vs. Jon Stewart on Gaza,', 'The Greenhouse propaganda – How Gazan history is being rewritten to dehumanize Palestinians,', 'Israeli Settlers Demolish Greenhouses and Gaza Jobs,', "Gaza Myths and Facts: What American Jewish Leaders Won't Tell You", http://www.inn.co.il/News/News.aspx/281873, "Uneasy Settlements: Reparation Politics and the Meanings of Money in the Israeli Withdrawal from Gaza", "Compensation for Jews Who Lost Homes in Disengagement", "New compensation bill for Gaza settlers passes first Knesset reading Israel News", "Former Gaza settlers still stuck in temporary mobile homes (Feature)", "Remembering 'Gush Katif' 7 Years after Gaza Withdrawal", "Annan commends Israeli withdrawal from Gaza", "With Gaza pullout ending, Israel, Palestinians must remain true to Road Map, says UN", "Palestinian Fatwa Forbids Attacks That Might Delay the Pullout", "Palestinians celebrate as they watch the removal trucks go by", "IMRA – Wednesday, July 20, 2005 Poll: Israeli media biased against settlers, for disengagement. These scenarios, which never materialized, took over the headlines. [24], Continued control of Gaza was considered to pose an impossible dilemma with respect to Israel's ability to be a Jewish and democratic state in all the territories it controls.[11][25]. "[115], 2005 removal of Israeli civilians and military from the Gaza Strip. The peace process is the evacuation of settlements, it's the return of refugees, it's the partition of Jerusalem. All with a presidential blessing and the ratification of both houses of Congress. Israel has demonstrated that it has the requisite maturity to do what would be required to achieve lasting peace, and the Israeli Defence Forces (IDF) has demonstrated their ability to discharge their mission with carefully calibrated restraint. Settlers who lived in the area for at least two years were eligible for more money. The government's plan for compensation used a formula that based actual amounts on location, house size, and number of family members among other factors. This was, however, a sharp drop of 39% from the settlers' average monthly income before the disengagement. [13] Sharon had originally dubbed his unilateral disengagement plan, the "separation plan" or Tokhnit HaHafrada before realizing that, "separation sounded bad, particularly in English, because it evoked apartheid. jerusalem S ix hundred ninety rockets or mortars were fired from the Gaza Strip in the last two days, marking the most serious uptick of violence in the past four years. I cannot travel to the International Criminal Court in Geneva because I am not allowed to leave. A September 15, 2004 survey published in Maariv showed that: Polls on support for the plan have consistently shown support for the plan in the 50–60% range, and opposition in the 30–40% range. The Prime Minister is willing to coordinate the implementation of the disengagement plan with the Palestinians. This incident has bolstered the position of critics of the plan that Sharon is intentionally trying to scuttle the peace process. If a referendum were to be held, 58% would vote for the disengagement plan, while 29% would vote against it. Other major news networks were not … Sharon himself announced that he accepted the Likud referendum results and would take time to consider his steps. Aryeh Yitzhaki defended his home with an M16 rifle, and dozens of settlers barricaded themselves inside or on the roof of his home, with at least four of those on the rooftop being armed. (Art 3.1). Land was to be compensated at a rate of $50,000 per dunam (approximately $202,000 per acre), with homes being compensated at a rate per square meter. The Anti-Defamation League, in turn, criticized the ZOA-commissioned poll, calling its wording "loaded. If authority was given to the Palestinians, why didn't the Israelis stay out of that area? The area of the dismantled West Bank settlements remained part of Area C (area under full Israeli civil and military control). [70][72] The project was shut down in April 2006 when money ran out to pay the agricultural workers. Respondents, by a margin of 4 to 1 (63% to 16%) opposed "Israel’s unilateral withdrawal from a section of Gaza and northern Samaria and forcing 10,000 Israeli Jews from their homes and businesses" and by a margin of 2.5 to 1 (53% to 21%), agreed with the statement that "this Gaza Plan sends a message that Arab terrorism is being rewarded. Israel’s Iron Dome Aerial Defense System intercepted 240 of them. This forced him to seek a National Unity government, which was established in January 2005. According to Peace Now, the number of settlers increased by 6,100 compared with 2004, to reach 250,000 in the West Bank. In fact, the US  president has reversed a 35 years of U.S. policy by announcing that all the big settlements in the West Bank should be regarded as part of Israel. Many on both sides remained skeptical of his will to withdraw beyond Gaza and the northern West Bank. ... "Why do they fire and what are their goals? Further complications arose from Hamas's election victory in January 2006, and the rift that emerged between Hamas and Fatah. The right believes that Sharon ignored the mandate he had been elected on, and instead adopted the platform of his Labor opponent, Amram Mitzna, who was overwhelmingly defeated when he campaigned on a disengagement plan of far smaller magnitude. IDF soldiers helped the settlers who chose to do so by packing their belongings and carrying them. [77], Under legislation passed by the Knesset, evacuated settlers were to be compensated for the loss of their homes, lands, and businesses. One poll commissioned by the Anti-Defamation League, and conducted by the Marttila Communications Group from June 19–23, 2005 among 2200 American adults, found that 71% of respondents felt that the Disengagement Plan is closer to a "bold step that would advance the Peace Process" than to a "capitulation to terrorist violence", while 12% felt that the plan is more of a "capitulation" than a "bold step". The plan was approved with a 14–7 majority but only after the National Union ministers and cabinet members Avigdor Liberman and Binyamin Elon were dismissed from the cabinet, and a compromise offer by Likud's cabinet member Tzipi Livni was achieved. Farmers were offered farmland or plots of land on which to build a home, in exchange for reduced compensation. Polls in the U.S. about the question of the Gaza pullout produced varied results. The IDF also pulled out its forces in the Gaza Strip, and had withdrawn 95% of its military equipment by September 1. Israel retained control over Gaza's borders, airspace, coastline, infrastructure, power, import-exports, etc. On July 13, Sharon signed the closure order of Gush Katif, making the area a closed military zone. In Israel, it has been criticized by the settlers themselves, supported by the Israeli right, who saw Ariel Sharon's action as a betrayal of his previous policies of support of settlement. Over 40 intersections throughout the country were blocked, including: On June 9, 2005, a poll on Israeli Channel 2 showed that public support for the plan had fallen below 50 percent for the first time. [63][64][65][66][67][68][69][70] Some settlers lit their homes on fire as they evacuated so as to leave the Palestinians nothing. Israel will continue to provide Gaza with water, communication, electricity, and sewage networks.[28]. Bar Ilan/Shmuel Hanavi Junction in Jerusalem, Golumb St. corner of Begin Blvd in Jerusalem, The political approach, owing much to existing right-wing ideology, claims that the areas to be evacuated constitute Israeli territory as legitimately as, The military approach says that the plan is disastrous to Israeli security – not only will prevention of, This page was last edited on 11 January 2021, at 11:45. "[citation needed] According to a police spokesman, it was one of the largest rallies in recent memory.[112]. [80] On March 28, the Knesset again rejected a bill to delay the implementation of the disengagement plan by a vote of 72 to 39. At midnight between August 14 and 15, the Kissufim crossing was shut down, and the Gaza Strip became officially closed for entrance by Israelis. Israel and Egypt imposed a land, sea and air blockade on Gaza when Hamas reinforced its power over the territory in 2007 by ousting its rivals, a year after winning legislative elections. [90] Project Coordinator Laurence Beziz notes that. Another poll commissioned by the Zionist Organization of America, and conducted by McLaughlin & Associates on June 26, 2005 – June 27, 2005, with a sample of 1,000 American adults, showed U.S. opposition to the proposed disengagement. Some of the soldiers were also observed sobbing, and there were instances of soldiers joining settlers in prayer before evicting them. The settlements were subsequently razed, with 270 homes being bulldozed. [citation needed] Their suspicions were further aroused[according to whom?] Omar Karmi's blog; Facebook; Twitter; Add new comment [12], In his book Sharon: The Life of a Leader, Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon's son Gilad wrote that he gave his father the idea of the disengagement. This represents an opportunity to restart the implementation of the Road Map, as endorsed by the UN Security Council. [5][7], Demographic concerns – retaining a Jewish majority in Israeli-controlled areas – played a significant role in the development of the policy,[8][9][10][11] being partly attributed to the campaign by demographer Arnon Soffer. Workers aged 50 to 55 were offered years' worth of unemployment benefits, and those over 55 were eligible for a pension until age 67. Relatives of Muhammad Abu Namous, one of three Palestinians killed along the Gaza-Israel boundary overnight, mourn during his funeral in Beit Lahiya, northern Gaza, on 18 August. When the British Mandate ended and the State of Israel was formed in 1948, Egypt-occupied Gaza set up an “All Palestine Government” in Gaza, headed by the notorious Nazi propagandist Haj Amin al-Husseini who formed the first jihadi militia in modern times—the Holy War Army. With the implementation of the plan, IDF installations and forces were removed and over 9000 Israeli citizens living in 25 settlements were evicted. [40] On August 22, Netzarim was evacuated by the Israeli military. In the past year the number of Palestinian residents in the strip that Israel allowed to leave has dropped sharply. [88], In August 2008, a museum of Gush Katif opened in Jerusalem near Machane Yehuda. [56], During the pullout, hundreds of people were arrested for rioting, and criminal charges were filed against 482 of them. Fires spread to Palestinian areas, and IDF bulldozers were deployed to put them out. On September 26, Israel killed Palestinian Islamic Jihad commander Mohammad Khalil and his bodyguard with a missile strike; on September 29 Israel closed all Hamas charities on the West Bank, and as part of a five-day offensive fired artillery into the Gaza Strip. By July 2014, eleven towns for the evacuees had been completed with the expellees joining ten additional towns. On May 9, the beginning of the evacuation of settlements was officially postponed from July 20 until August 15, so as to not coincide with the Jewish period of The Three Weeks and the fast of Tisha B'Av, traditionally marking grief and destruction. Most families were expected to receive between US$200,000 and 300,000. In cases where communities did not stay together and communal property was lost, individuals would receive compensation for donations made to those buildings. Israel’s siege has meant that it is virtually impossible for Gazans to leave the occupied territory. Going back into Gaza would just fire up the original problem. For us, it would mean the end of the Jewish state... the parameters of a unilateral solution are: To maximize the number of Jews; to minimize the number of Palestinians; not to withdraw to the 1967 border and not to divide Jerusalem... Twenty-three years ago, Moshe Dayan proposed unilateral autonomy. The most simple and honest reason is that the Israelis left Gaza because the costs was too high versus the benefits derived from occupation. On August 15, the evacuation commenced under the orders of Maj. Gen. Dan Harel of the Southern Command. Some 300 settlers barricaded themselves in the local synagogue, while another group barricaded themselves on the roof with barbed wire, and pelted security forces with various objects. [70], After Israel's withdrawal, the Palestinians were given control over the Gaza Strip, except for the borders, the airspace and the territorial waters. Settlers blocked roads, lit fires, and pleaded with soldiers to disobey orders. The transfer was completed on September 1.[44][45]. Ehud Olmert, then the Minister of Industry, Trade, and Labor, stated that the closing was part of Israel's plan to withdraw from the Gaza Strip.[26]. Israel should not give up any more territory in order to apease the arabs because the arabs will not stop there attacks on Israel as long as it exists. Obstacles to movement in the West Bank would be lifted. The sewage-treatment plants aren’t working properly, the result of Israel’s decade-long blockade of Gaza, decaying infrastructure and electricity shortages. [105], On July 25, 2004, the "Human Chain", a rally of tens of thousands of Israelis to protest against the plan and for a national referendum took place. [50] All remaining IDF forces left the Gaza Strip in the following hours. Security forces stormed the rooftop and arrested settlers without any violence. International bodies, and pressure from James Wolfensohn, Middle East envoy of the Quartet, who gave $500,000 of his own money, offered incentives for the rest to be left to the Palestinians of Gaza. [86] Fighting spread to several points in the Gaza Strip with both factions attacking each other. On September 23, hours after rockets were shot into Israel, a Hamas pickup truck in the Jabaliya Refugee camp was struck by a missile, killing 10 militants and injuring 85 people. Javier Solana, High Representative for the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP), stated on June 10, 2004: I welcome the Israeli Prime Minister's proposals for disengagement from Gaza. Failing to gain public support from senior ministers, Sharon agreed that the Likud party would hold a referendum on the plan in advance of a vote by the Israeli Cabinet. The average monthly salary among the evacuees was NIS 5,380 (about $1,281), a slight rise of 2.1 percent from the average salary the year before. Even after they were attacked and won it in battle.The so called Palestine do have a homeland it is called Jordan. She remained in the Gaza Strip, with her ability to apply for a permit to exit complicated by the Palestinian Authority’s end to the coordination of permit applications during this period. There is only one answer. Based on Keshev's research, the Israeli print and TV media "relegated to back pages and buried deep in the newscasts, often under misleading headlines" items that "mitigat[ed] the extreme forecasts. The evacuation by agreement continued after midnight of the August 17 for settlers who requested a time extension for packing their things. Ibrahim Gambari, Under-Secretary-General for Political Affairs, told the Security Council on August 24, 2005:[96]. Meanwhile, on August 14, Aryeh Yitzhaki proclaimed the independence of Shirat HaYam as "The Independent Jewish Authority in Gaza Beach", and submitted appeals for recognition to the United Nations and Red Cross. Sharon decided not to proceed with their demolition, however. Thanks to Israel permitting Qatari-funded fuel for Gaza’s only power station, electricity supply has risen to an average of 12 hours from as little as four hours a day. "Instead of hope, the Palestinians saw that they were put back in prison," he concluded. Police removed them by force after negotiations failed, and there were injuries to both settlers and officers. On August 17, the settlement of Morag was evacuated by 200 police officers. [73] Economic consultants estimated that the closures cost the whole agricultural sector in Gaza $450,000 a day in lost revenue. Originally Answered: Why did Israel leave Gaza ? Why bother protecting couple of valnurable tomato farms with hundred of settlers in the rigid and unhistoric land of Gaza? The referendum was held on May 2, 2004 and ended with 65% of the voters against the disengagement plan, despite some polls showing approximately 55% of Likud members supporting the plan before the referendum. By the summer of 2007, Hamas had won a civil war against the armed wing of the rival Fatah party and seized full control of Gaza. An agreement was reached with Israel under international law to destroy the settlers' houses and shift the rubble to Egypt. 2- ensuring a clear zone of Palestinians scrumbled to Gaza where Israel can hit hard without the fear of retaliation against settlements in Gaza if a revenge was to be taken in action by Islamic militias. To alter the swiftly changing demographics of Israel. [8][9][10], The rationale for the disengagement has been partly attributed to Arnon Soffer’s campaign regarding "the danger the Palestinian womb posed to Israeli democracy. Perhaps they are "happy" because they managed to get out of the Gaza Strip. [35], Bedouin citizens of Israel from the village of Dahaniya, situated in the no-man's land on the Israel-Gaza Strip border, were evacuated and resettled in Arad. [6] Following the withdrawal, Israel has continued to maintain direct external control over Gaza and indirect control over life within Gaza: it controls Gaza's air and maritime space, and six of Gaza's seven land crossings, it maintains a no-go buffer zone within the territory, and controls the Palestinian population registry, and Gaza remains dependent on Israel for its water, electricity, telecommunications, and other utilities. On August 7, Netanyahu resigned just prior to the cabinet ratification of the first phase of the disengagement plan by a vote of 17 to 5. Vacating Gazaimmediately dropped millions of Muslims and Christians from thepopulation and increased the Jewish percentage of the overallpopulation significantly - which has an immediate effect in the Isrealigovernment, social programs, and so on. [79] By April 2006, only minimal compensation (approximately $10,000) had been paid to families to survive until they obtained new jobs, which was difficult for most people, considering that most of the newly unemployed were middle-aged and lost the agricultural resources that were their livelihood. [citation needed][108][109][110][111] On August 11, 2005, between 150,000 (police estimates) and 300,000 (organizers' estimates) people massed in and around Tel Aviv's Rabin Square for an anti-disengagement rally. However, an official handover ceremony was cancelled after the Palestinian Authority boycotted it in response to Israel's decision not to demolish the synagogues. The bill was introduced by a group of Likud MKs who wanted to force a referendum on the issue.[27]. [87] In June 2007 the Fatah–Hamas conflict reached its height and Hamas took control over the Gaza Strip. Yankeleh Klein, the museum director, sees it as an artistic commemoration of the expulsion from the 21 Gaza settlements, and the evacuees' longing to return. [42] Two synagogues, whose construction allowed for them to be taken apart and reassembled, were dismantled and rebuilt in Israel. [73][74] The Palestine Economic Development Company (PED) invested $20,000,000 and by October the industry was back on its feet. [98], On August 15, 2005, scenes of delight took place across the Arab world, following the long-ingrained suspicion that the disengagement would not take place.[99][100]. On September 7, the IDF announced that it planned to advance its full withdrawal from the Gaza Strip to September 12, pending cabinet approval. However, Europe has given tentative backing to the Disengagement Plan as part of the road map for peace. [original research? At a joint press conference with Ariel Sharon on April 11, 2005 he said: I strongly support [Prime Minister Sharon's] courageous initiative to disengage from Gaza and part of the West Bank. Searching for “Gaza” on the websites of NBC News, CNN, MSNBC and PBS elicits no relevant results. Except I disagree with you on the legality of Israel's colonies as they are completely legal. By August 2014, unemployment among evacuees had dropped to 18%. On December 30, Sharon made a deal with the Labor Party to form a coalition, with Shimon Peres becoming Vice Premier, restoring the government's majority in the Knesset. As part of the agreement with Lebanon, Israeli forces withdrew to the international border. On the same wavelength, we may have to espouse unilateral separation... [it] would inevitably preclude a dialogue with the Palestinians for at least 25 years. [3] The eviction and dismantlement of the four settlements in the northern West Bank was completed ten days later. The disengagement began with Operation "Yad l'Achim" (Hebrew: מבצע יד לאחים, “Giving brothers a hand"). He ordered Minister of Defense Shaul Mofaz to create an amended plan which Likud voters could accept. [46] It was also announced that in the area evacuated in the West Bank the IDF planned to transfer all control (excluding building permits and anti-terrorism) to the PNA – the area will remain "Area C" (full Israeli control) de jure, but "Area A" (full PNA control) de facto. After disengagement: 43%terror will increase, 25% will decline", "Israel News – Online Israeli News Covering Israel & The Jewish World …", "Yesha calls on pullout foes to bring children to Gaza", "Keshev Report: Disconnected - The Israeli Media's Coverage of the Gaza Disengagement", Israel completes Gaza strip, West Bank pull-outs, PM Sharon's Statement on the Day of the Implementation of the Disengagement Plan, Israel's Disengagement Plan: Renewing the Peace Process, Jan 2005.htm Israel's Disengagement Plan: Selected Documents, Ariel Sharon's Disengagement Plan and President Bush's letter accepting it, Map of disengagement plan showing settlements to be evacuated, Pictures of the Mass Prayer Rally against the disengagement plan at the Western Wall in Jerusalem, Pictures of the Mass Rally in Tel Aviv against the disengagement plan, Ariel Sharon's Disengagement Plan – From Ariel Sharon's Life Story – A biography, Beit Hanoun raid / Operation "Forward Shield", United Nations Fact Finding Mission on the Gaza Conflict, 2011 southern Israel cross-border attacks, Gaza–Israel clashes / Operation "Returning Echo", Israel–Gaza conflict / Operation "Protective Edge", United Nations Fact Finding Mission on the 2014 Israel–Gaza conflict, Timeline of the Israeli–Palestinian conflict, List of Israeli attacks on the Gaza strip, Proposed Israeli annexation of the West Bank, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Israeli_disengagement_from_Gaza&oldid=999682196, Former Israeli settlements in the Gaza Strip, Articles with dead external links from August 2018, Articles with permanently dead external links, Articles with dead external links from September 2017, Articles with dead external links from November 2019, Wikipedia extended-confirmed-protected pages, All Wikipedia articles written in American English, Articles needing additional references from August 2014, All articles needing additional references, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from July 2015, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2011, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2014, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2011, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2007, All articles that may contain original research, Articles that may contain original research from August 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2014, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from August 2014, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from March 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2012, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. On August 10, 2005, in response to calls from Jewish religious leaders, including former Chief Rabbis Avraham Shapira, Ovadia Yosef, and Mordechai Eliyahu, between 70,000 (police estimate) and 250,000 (organizers' estimate) Jews gathered for a rally centered at the Western Wall in prayer to ask that the planned disengagement be cancelled. The protest was sponsored by "HaBayit HaLeumi", and was hailed by them as a success, with over 400 protestors arrested, half of them juveniles. [55], On September 22, the IDF evacuated the four settlements in the northern West Bank. While most had by then finished serving their sentences, their criminal records were expunged. Receive between US $ 200,000 in compensation, calling its wording `` loaded [ 55,... The road map for peace, has been criticized from various viewpoints the rubble to Egypt 200 officers... Right and garnered him unusual support from the 21 settlements in the synagogue why did israel leave gaza buildings. 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Iron Dome Aerial Defense System intercepted 240 of them the doors of those who did not was with... Withdrew all forces from the left-wing in Israel the solution that we must adopt Europe! Circumstances, give up any more plan which Likud voters could accept 28... Omar Karmi 's blog ; Facebook ; Twitter ; Add new comment Israel signed armistice agreements all! Gush Katif 's 48-grave cemetery was completely sealed off to non-residents term ` peace process is the of... Have complete control over Gaza 's borders, air space, and there were to! Vote against it Likud MKs who wanted to force a referendum on the websites of NBC,. Likud voters could accept houses and synagogues, whose construction allowed for them to,... Talked about the question of the plan ; 26 % thought that approval the! Council threatened to unilaterally declare independence, citing the Gaza Strip with both factions each!